The ground was frozen, the men had no shelter and had little food for weeks. [15] Dost Mohammad had in fact invited Count Witkiewicz to Kabul as a way to frighten the British into making an alliance with him against his archenemy Ranjit Singh, the Maharaja of the Punjab, not because he really wanted an alliance with Russia. [25], The regiments chosen for the invasion of Afghanistan came from the Bengal and Bombay armies. I could not believe my own eyes or ears. A month later, having rescued the prisoners and demolished the city's main bazaar as an act of retaliation for the destruction of Elphinstone's column, they withdrew from Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass. Journal Article The Revolutions of 1841–2 in Afghanistan pp. His own judgement appears to be good, but he is swayed by the last speaker", criticising him for "...a very strange circumstance that troops were not immediately sent into the city to quell the affair in the commencement, but we seem to sit quietly with our hands folded, and look on".."[62] Despite both being in the cantonment, Elphinstone prefer to write letters to Macnaughten, with one letter on 2 November saying "I have been considering what can done tomorrow" (he decided to do nothing that day), stating "our dilemma is a difficult one", and finally concluding "We must see what the morning brings". [69] Johnson described "murderous fire" that forced the British to abandon all baggage while camp followers regardless of sex and age were cut down with swords. [8] The main goal of Nicholas's foreign policy was not the conquest of Asia, but rather upholding the status quo in Europe, especially by co-operating with Prussia and Austria, and in isolating France, as Louis Philippe I, the King of the French was a man whom Nicholas hated as an "usurper". [64] Five days later, the withdrawal began. "The Revolutions of 1841–2 in Afghanistan" pp. As early as 1838, Count Karl Nesselrode, the Russian Foreign Minister, had suggested to the British Ambassador in St. Petersburg, Lord Clanricarde, that Britain and Russia sign a treaty delimiting spheres of influence in Asia to end the "Great Game" once and for all. By 1865 Tashkent had been formally annexed, as was Samarkand three years later. L'invasion britannique et le traité de Gandamak, Chronologie de la deuxième guerre anglo-afghane, Frederick Roberts et la route de Kandahar,, Article contenant un appel à traduction en anglais, Page géolocalisable sans coordonnées paramétrées, Conflit militaire géolocalisable sans coordonnées paramétrées, Catégorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, Portail:Époque contemporaine/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence, Bataille des collines d'Asmaï (victoire afghane), Évacuation de Kandahar (et de l’Afghanistan). [68] Despite Akbar Khan's promise of safe conduct, the Anglo-Indian force was repeatedly attack by the Ghilzais, with one especially fierce Afghan attack being beaten off with a spirited bayonet charge by the 44th Foot. [52] The monthly subsidies, which were effectively bribes for the Ghazi chiefs to stay loyal, was reduced from 80,000 to 40,000 rupees at a time of rampant inflation, and as the chiefs' loyalty had been entirely financial, the call of jihad proved stronger. [30] The British took fifty prisoners who were brought before Shuja, where one of them stabbed a minister to death with a hidden knife. Le héros, Ashton Pelham Martyn (Ashok) est envoyé comme espion à Kaboul, où son meilleur ami est nommé chef de la mission Cavagnari. Roberts fit alors évacuer Kaboul par le gros de l’armée britannique et au mois de septembre, il écrasa les partisans d'Ayub Khan à Kandahar, mettant un terme au conflit. [6] In 1832, the First Reform Bill lowering the franchise requirements to vote and hold office in the United Kingdom was passed, which the ultra-conservative Emperor Nicholas I of Russia openly disapproved of, setting the stage for an Anglo-Russian "cold war", with many believing that Russian autocracy and British democracy were bound to clash. Shuja promptly confirmed his reputation for cruelty by seeking to wreak vengeance on all who had crossed him as he considered his own people to be "dogs" who needed to be taught to obey their master.[33]. The simple fact was that despite Britain’s industrial revolution, the handcrafted Afghan jezail and sword were far superior to their British counterparts. [25] The units from the Bengal Army going into Afghanistan were Skinner's Horse, the Forty-third Native Infantry and the Second Light Cavalry, which were all Company regiments while the Sixteenth Lancers and the Thirteenth Light Infantry came from the British Army in India. Princeton: Princeton Legacy Library, 1980. p. 379, Yapp, M.E. "[59] That same day, a mob "thirsting for blood" appeared outside of the house of the East India Company's second political officer, Sir Alexander 'Sekundar' Burnes, where Burnes ordered his sepoy guards not to fire while he stood outside haranguing the mob in Pashto, attempting unconvincingly to persuade the assembled men that he did not bed their daughters and sisters. When Ackakzai sent his retainers to retrieve her, it was discovered that Burnes had taken the slave girl to his bed, and he had one of Azkakzai's men beaten. The British Army then withdrew. The standard Afghan weapon was a matchlock rifle known as the jezail. Children taken from the battlefield at the time who were later identified in the early part of the 20th century to be those of the fallen soldiers were brought up by Afghan families as their own children.[83][84][85][86][87]. The remainder are deployed elsewhere within Camp Bastion and in Kandahar and Kabul as part of the UK’s overall contribution. [29] Keane left behind his siege engines in Kandahar, which turned out to be a mistake as he discovered that the walls of the Ghazni fortress were far stronger than he expected. leading to the creation of a new North-West Frontier Province. On 23 July 1839, in a surprise attack, the British-led forces captured the fortress of Ghazni, which overlooks a plain leading eastward into the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. [48] Palmerston noted that because the British had more money to bribe local rulers in Central Asia, this gave them the advantage in this "game", and it was thus better to keep the "Great Game" going. The chosen location was indefensible, being low and swampy with hills on every side. [42] The East India Company's second political officer Sir Alexander Burnes was especially noted for his insatiable womanizing, settling an example ardently imitated by his men. [4], The 19th century was a period of diplomatic competition between the British and Russian empires for spheres of influence in Asia known as the "Great Game" to the British and the "Tournament of Shadows" to the Russians. 2002 The Lyons Press p. 203, Antoinette Burton, "On the First Anglo-Afghan War, 1839–42: Spectacle of Disaster", 'no man could say, unless it were subsequently explained, this course was not as rash and impolitic, as it was ill-considered, oppressive, and unjust. Le livre s'achève sur la chute de Bala Hissar à Kaboul, et le massacre des Britanniques et de leurs auxiliaires après d'âpres combats (presque tous les détails sont tirés de sources d'époque) ; le héros et sa femme s'enfuient à cheval vers l'Himalaya. Cambridge University Press. [71] Johnson described Shelton as fighting like a "bulldog" with his sword, cutting down any Afghan who tried to take him on so efficiently that by the end of the day no Afghan would challenge him. Ali's successor Mohammad Yaqub Khan immediately sued for peace and the Treaty of Gandamak was then signed on 26 May 1879. Les Britanniques renoncèrent cette fois à humilier les Afghans en nommant un résident à Kaboul ; ayant atteint tous leurs objectifs, ils se retirèrent. Les Britanniques envisagèrent alors divers scénarios politiques, dont l'émiettement de l’Afghanistan en principautés, ou l'avènement du frère de Yaqoub, Mohammad Ayub Khan (en), mais leur choix se porta finalement sur un de ses cousins, Abdur Rahman Khan, qui devint ainsi émir.

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